Vaccines in development for the primary prevention of Clostridium difficile infection

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) lists Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) as an urgent threat because of its increasing incidence, high-cost complications, readmission rate, and mortality. Clinical manifestations of CDI range from mild to severe diarrhea and systemic, life-threatening complications such as pseudomembranous colitis, toxic megacolon, and sepsis. CDC estimates that 453,000 cases occur each year in the United States and 15,000 deaths are attributed directly to CDI.

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The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) lists Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) as an urgent threat because of its increasing incidence, high-cost complications, readmission rate, and mortality. Clinical manifestations of CDI range from mild to severe diarrhea and systemic, life-threatening complications such as pseudomembranous colitis, toxic megacolon, and sepsis. CDC estimates that 453,000 cases occur each year in the United States and 15,000 deaths are attributed directly to CDI.